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Course Details


Dubai, UAE
From Date: 02-Oct-2023   
To Date: 06-Oct-2023
5 Days

Ref No:      EE070
Title:          Transformer Operational Principles, Selection & Troubleshooting
Start Date: 02 October 2023  End Date: 06 October 2023
Venue:       Dubai, UAE
Fee:            $5,250

In any of the 5 star hotels. The exact venue will be informed once finalized.

Installation of high voltage distribution and transmission equipment has increased significantly over the years due to ongoing global demand for power. As a result, the need to ensure the reliability of operation of power systems is paramount. Power transformers are among the most important and most expensive components of power systems, their failure can impose extraordinarily high costs on plants, factories and utilities of all descriptions. It is critical that all personnel operating and working with such equipment have a sound knowledge of their operational requirements and maintenance. This practical workshop provides knowledge on both the theory and operation of Power Transformers. The course will develop and enhance an understanding of what is involved in the maintenance of these essential components of the power systems, through the tips and tricks learnt and developed by some of the World's pre-eminent electrical engineers.


At the end of the course participants will gain:

  • An understanding of the fundamental theory and principles of the operation of power transformers
  • An insight into the identification and application of transformers’ types
  • An understanding of the power transformers components and their construction
  • Knowledge of power transformer protection
  • An understanding of power transformers oil and oil tests and interpretation of results
  • Knowledge of the most effective power transformer electrical tests
  • Skills in how to manage power transformer breakdowns to ensure minimum disruption

The course is suggested for Electrical Engineers

  • Power System Engineers
  • Electrical Engineers
  • Consulting Engineers
  • Project Engineers
  • Power System Technicians
  • Electrical Contractors
  • Electrical Technicians
  • Tradesman Electricians
  • Electrical Inspectors
  • Utility Engineers


  1. Basic Transformer Theory
    1. Definition of a Transformer
    2. Magnetic Units and Conversion Factors
    3. Currents and Magnetic Fields
    4. Magnetic Induction
    5. Constructing a Simple Transformer
    6. The Magnetic Circuit
    7. The B-H Curve
    8. The B-H Curve and Hysteresis
    9. Magnetizing Currents and Harmonics
    10. Transformer Core Design and Construction
    11. Magnetostriction
    12. Completing the Transformer by Adding a Second Winding
    13. Transformer tap Changers
    14. Reading and Applying Nameplate Information
  2. Two-Winding Transformer Connections
    1. The Y-Y Connection in Three-Phase Systems
    2. Advantages of the Y-Y Connection
    3. Disadvantages of the Y-Y Connection
    4. The Y-Δ Connection and the Δ-Y Connection
    5. Phase Angle Displacement and Phase Rotation
    6. The Y-Δ Grounding Bank
    7. The Zigzag Connection
    8. Comparisons of Economy of the Different Winding Configurations
    9. Trade-Off Between Steel and Copper in the Design of a Transformer
    10. Connecting Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase Transformers
    11. Transforming Three-Phase Voltages into Two-Phase Voltages
    12. The Scott Transformer Connection
    13. Three-Phase Transformer Designs
    14. Standard Terminal Markings for Transformers
  3. Transformer Impedance and Losses
    1. Leakage Flux and Leakage Reactance
    2. Conductor Losses
    3. No-Load Losses
    4. Magnetizing Reactance
    5. Equivalent Circuit of a Two-Winding Transformer
    6. A Brief Tutorial on Symmetrical Components
    7. Transformer Equivalent Circuits Modeled in Zero Phase Sequence Networks
    8. Series Impedance and Regulation
    9. Matching Transformers for Parallel and Bank Operations
  4. Transformer Types
    1. Power Transformers
    2. Distribution Transformers
    3. Phase-Shifting Transformers
    4. Rectifier Transformers
    5. Dry-Type Transformers
    6. Instrument Transformers
    7. Step-Voltage Regulators
    8. Constant-Voltage Transformer
    9. Autotransformers and Three-Winding Transformers
      1. Autotransformer Connections
      2. Impedance of an Autotransformer
      3. Limitations of the Autotransformer Connection
      4. Autotransformer Voltages with Short Circuits Applied
      5. Impulse Voltages Applied to Autotransformers
      6. Autotransformer Core and Coil Designs and Terminal Configurations
      7. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Autotransformer Connection
      8. Three-Winding Transformers
      9. Modification of Transformer Laws with Three Windings
      10. Equivalent Circuit of a Three-Winding Transformer
      11. Core and Coil Construction of Three-Winding Transformers
      12. Thermal Capability of Three-Winding Transformers
      13. The Stabilizing Effect of a Δ Tertiary Winding
  5. Short Circuits, Inrush Currents, and Other Phenomena
    1. Effects of Short Circuits on Transformers
    2. Comparisons of Short-Circuit Currents for Various Faults
    3. Mechanical Forces in Transformers
    4. Forces between Transformer Windings
    5. Short-Circuit Forces in Three-Winding Transformers
    6. Exciting Current Inrush
    7. Tank Overheating from Zero-Sequence Currents
    8. Primary Fuse Misoperations
    9. Ferroresonance
    10. Voltage Surge
  6. Basic Concepts of Power System Faults and Transformer Protection
    1. The Reasons For Protection
    2. Principles of protection
    3. Disconnection Devices
    4. Protection and system design
    5. Nature of short circuit currents
    6. Sources Of Short Circuits
    7. Transformer Protection
  7. Condition Monitoring And Diagnostics
    1. Partial Discharge
    2. Insulation Resistance Monitoring
      1. Insulation Resistance Test (IR)
      2. Megger Test
      3. Polarization Index Test
      4. Correction for Winding Temperature
      5. Insulation Contamination
      6. IR Test Connections
      7. Typical IR Testing Program
      1. Maximum Allowable Test Voltage
    4. Measuring Insulation Degradation
      1. Capacitive Charging Current
      2. Resistive Leakage Current
      3. Energy Dissipated
    5. Insulation Power Factor
      1. Insulation Power Factor Standards
      2. Power Factor Test Sets
      3. Outage for Scheduled Maintenance
    6. On Line Measuring Partial Discharge Activity For Insulation
    7. On-Line Monitoring Of Transformers
      1. Local Indications
      2. Thermography
      3. PDA - Partial Discharge Analysis
      4. Insulating Oil Properties
      5. Test for Dielectric Strength
      6. Water Content in Oil
      7. Acidity Test (Neutralization Number
      8. Oxidation Inhibitor
      9. Interfacial Tension Test (IFT)
      10. Oil Color
      11. Oil Power Factor Test
    8. Insulating Oil Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA)
      1. Release of CO2)
      2. Release of Acetylene
      3. DGA Test Report
      4. DGA Trends
      5. Continuous Gas Monitoring
  8. Maintenance, Testing, Troubleshooting, and Reliability
    1. Good Utility Practices
    2. Preventative Maintenance versus Predictive Maintenance
    3. Factory Tests
    4. Ratio Test
    5. Other Factory Tests
    6. Field Tests
    7. Gas-in-Oil Analysis
    8. Water-in-Oil Analysis
    9. Drying Transformers
    10. Oil Dielectric Test
    11. Reliability Calculations
    12. The Chi-Squared Distribution
    13. The Poisson Distribution

Pre & Post Tests will be conducted
Case Studies, Group Exercises, Group Discussions, Last Day Review & Assessments will be carried out.


Define Management Consultancy & Training Certificate of course completion will be issued to all attendees.


A highly interactive combination of lectures and discussion sessions will be managed to maximize the amount and quality of information and knowledge transfer. The sessions will start by raising the most relevant questions, and motivate everybody find the right answers. You will also be encouraged to raise your own questions and to share in the development of the right answers using your own analysis and experiences. Tests of multiple-choice type will be made available on daily basis to examine the effectiveness of delivering the course.
Very useful Course Materials will be given.

  • 30% Lectures
  • 30% Workshops and work presentation
  • 20% Group Work& Practical Exercises
  • 20% Videos& General Discussions
5,250 US$ per participant for Public Training includes Materials/Handouts, tea/coffee breaks, refreshments & Buffet Lunch

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